Soursop is a tropical evergreen tree that produces fruit with a prickly yellow-green skin. Also referred to as graviola, all its parts from the root to leaves are edible or has medicinal value. It is a fast growing tree that starts producing fruit in the third year. The soursop fruit is sold in some of the major markets in Nairobi that include; Ngara, city and wakulima. There is no documentation on any commercial soursop plantations in Kenya but a few plants have been spotted in coast, Nyanza and central regions. Soursop (annona muricata) is often mistaken for or referred to as custard apple (annona reticulata) , they belong to the same family- annona, but they are two different fruits. We will explore Custard apple in our next article.
Soursop grows in a wide array of soils as long as the soil is well drained. A soil PH of between 5 and 6.5 is ideal. The soursop tree is small in size and may serve as an intercrop between large fruit trees. Soursop can be propagated from seed or cuttings. Plant well developed seedlings and ensure they are mulched to suppress weeds and to improve moisture retention in the soil. Soursop trees prefer warm and humid conditions to thrive, they are very susceptible to low temperatures. On maturity fruit may emerge anywhere on the tree ; trunk, branches or twigs. The tree will require adequate fertilizing of which we recommend organic compost and mulching using organic material. Young trees can be supported using bamboo sticks.
The tree starts to flower and eventually fruit in the third year, fruits are harvested when they are fully developed but still green. Thereafter it takes 2-4 days to ripen. A single tree can produce 60-70 fruits in a year. The fruit should be handled with care when harvesting to avoid bruising it. After harvest prune slightly as you eliminate dead wood. Soursop may be directly consumed when ripe or processed into ice cream, syrup, smoothies, juice, pulp etc. The fruit has a white fleshy and fibrous pulp with a sweet sour flavor and is rich in vitamin B and C.
There are various pest and diseases that attack the soursop tree. Locally it is more vulnerable to the fruit fly and aphids. Plant disease free seedlings and monitor your plants for any pests and diseases. In case of any attacks consult your extension officer; we do also assist farmers by offering them professional advice concerning the same. We have stocked a few soursop plants that are ready for planting, feel free to visit our demonstration project at kariobangi north primary or our main nursery at Thome, Kasarani. Happy gardening and make sure you plant a fruit tree.
All along we have been highlighting fruit trees that we perceive have great potential to uplift the living standards of small scale farmers and home gardeners in the hope that many will embrace fruit farming. Our focus as an organization is on micro and small scale farmers especially those who are innovative and willing to embrace different farming techniques and crops. As much as most policy issues in the horticultural sector lean towards large scale farmers, micro and small scale farmers play a crucial role in the economy of a country. Food security is greatly boosted and hidden hunger reduced if many individuals engage in farming activities rather than a few large scale farmers whose main objective is high yields.
We all are farmers by default and agriculture is a way of life that can also double as a business. The goal is to create a simple farming system that can be easily implemented and gives room for continual optimization of the ecological, economic and social benefits. You are your own teacher. Don’t rely entirely on our posts or what we say, get information from different sources that will enable you make an informed decision. Do your own research that will enable you decide on what you want to do and why you are doing it? Know thyself.
Fruit farming has its share of challenges along the value chain, from the farm to the market as fresh fruits or processed end products. Even if your farm is meant for personal consumption, the farm should be designed with the end market in mind. In other words, the farm’s potential to generate income and other environmental and social benefits should be exploited and put into consideration. You never know, later you or your inheritors might want to generate some income from your farm. There are many income generating opportunities that integrate well with an orchard; from offering demos, training, seedlings among others.
Fruit cultivation is a long term activity; a grafted tree starts producing viable fruits in the third year, and starts producing optimally after the next 2 to 4 years then continually beyond generations. Hence there is need for good planning to realize short, medium and long-term goals. For this to be realized different crops and trees should be integrated in the farm system. A background check should be done to know the characteristics of the different kind of crops and fruit tree species that combine well and have a degree of symbiotic relationship. For proper results combine the right fruit tree and the right medium term (Papaya, cassava, sweet potato, tree tomato etc) and short term (vegetables, strawberry, herbs etc) crops and trees/shrubs.
Consider location with reference to weather and market. The site should have plenty sunshine and excellent air flow. It is proper to do soil test and analysis so as to know the status of your soil. The soil should have good drainage and adequate PH. Soil testing facilities do exist that one can do testing at pocket friendly rates but we still feel that the prices should be reduced to enable an ordinary farmer access the service.
Planting and irrigation
Consider the correct spacing as per your needs. The pruning system to be used will determine the distance between trees. Source certified and disease free planting material and inputs. We advocate the use of more organic manure/fertilizer and less synthetic fertilizers. Settle for your preferred irrigation system, there are drip irrigation systems designed and meant for small scale farmers.
Tree training and management
Right management practices should be embraced. A well trained tree is much easier to manage and maintain and this calls for constant care from when the tree is young. Trees should be trained to facilitate cultivation, light penetration, spraying and harvesting. Consider the following too; Mulching, weed management, pruning, thinning and pollination requirements.
Pest and disease control
The best way to tackle pest and diseases is prevention. Plant disease free seedlings and ensure they are well taken care of. We favor integrated pest management (IPM) that combines different pest control techniques and strategies keeping the use of pesticides at low levels. IPM is a complex pest control process but cost effective with many benefits to the ecosystem and our personal health.
Start looking for market for your produce before you harvest. Horticultural crops, because of their high perishability require an efficient marketing strategy. Come up with a marketing strategy that will identify potential buyers, how they will access the farm products and at what price. Small scale farmers can form groups that will enable them produce in bulk and access the export market as a single unit. Local fruit processing firms do exist in different counties that are in need of raw material, approach them and know the thresholds and the prices they offer.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest your produce at the right time for better quality. Fruits are harvested when they are mature or ripen. Use easy to handle harvest containers and ensure the harvesting tools are sterilized. Harvested fruits should be washed and treated to avoid propagation of diseases. Fruits are stored in a dry and cool place in flexible sacks, crates, cartons or baskets as they await consumption or value addition.
Farming on a small or moderate scale has prospects of generating competent income. There is need for Policy measures that improve the performance of small scale horticultural farmers. There are a variety of fruit tree species that perform exceptionally well in Kenya, hence need for more research and development to realize their potential. The setting up of fruit processing firms in different counties offers the Kenyan small scale farmer an opportunity to diversify into fruit farming. Thoroughly master your local problem, come up with solutions as you impact the lives of others while making a profit. Sustainable fruit farming offers a simple solution that combats climate change and food insecurity making it a worthy cause.
We are looking forward to a fruitful 2015 as we continue to encourage farmers and home gardeners to embrace eco-friendly agriculture that adapts to climate change, and achieves higher productivity while delivers economic and social benefits. In partnership with Bonsai Global (http://www.bonsaiglobal.co.ke) we are embarking on a journey to sensitize Kenyans on the economic and environmental benefits of Breadfruit. A single tree can produce enough fruit to calorically sustain a modern family of 4 for six months over 75 plus years. Breadfruit can be used as a substitute for rice, and it can be processed into a glutten-free flour can serve as a replacement for wheat flour in making muffins, pancakes and bread. We have identified farmers from different parts of the country who will be trained on Breadfruit best production practices and given seedlings to kick start their practical project. The Breadfruit Institute (www.breadfruit.org) in Hawaii will be providing the seedlings to be distributed to farmers and schools in different selected areas.
Food self-sufficiency and sustainability are becoming hot topics and such an initiative will come in handy. Breadfruit is a fast growing versatile fruit that can play an important role in combating food insecurity and deforestation especially in different countries in Africa. With proper maintenance breadfruit can easily be grown in places with little space in urban areas and can also be inter-cropped with different plants on farms. Breadfruit farming is not labor intensive, requires less inputs and produces yields greater than any other starch alternative,including wheat, maize and tuber crops. Nutritionally, it is rich in iron, calcium, fiber, potassium, magnesium and its high in carbohydrates. Breadfruit can be boiled, roasted, baked or fried and has great potential to be featured in the everyday diet. There are more than 100 varieties of breadfruit but most prevalent ones are the Ma’afala and Ulu Fiti, provided by tissue culture through Global Breadfruit (www.globalbreadfruit.com).
For high produce and quality fruit, one should plant mature and healthy seedlings in a place where there is good air circulation. Breadfruit is an energy rich food that requires sufficient nutrition and regular watering during the first 6-12 months. The trees should be mulched after planting and beneficial cover crops planted around the tree to also increase biological activity. It is advisable to test your soil before applying any fertilizer and should be applied before the fruiting season. Healthy seedlings are disease resistant but one should watch out for snails, slugs, ants, termites and mildews. When it comes to pest and diseases, prevention is the best cure. Ensure the area surrounding your plants is clean and weed free to avoid pests.
Within 2-3 years the breadfruit tree starts fruiting and with proper care the tree can produce fruit for more than 75 plus years. A single tree can produce 150-200 fruits in a year at peak production. We are in the process of identifying markets for breadfruit as well as creating an increased demand for it especially among gluten free persons and those who suffer from celiac disease. This will be achieved through the production of quality fruits, value addition and showcasing the immense nutrition and health benefits of consuming breadfruit and its potential to address hidden hunger. We are targeting farmers and schools in areas with slightly high temperatures that do not go below 16 degree Celsius at night and have irrigation or receive 1500mm of rain annually. Regions from Western, Coast, Eastern, North Eastern and parts of Rift Valley are areas where plants have already been experimented with. Drop us a mail in case of any inquiries email@example.com
Originally referred to as the Chinese gooseberry, kiwi is one of the most nutritious fruit yet so expensive; a single fruit goes at Ksh 100 which is equivalent to approximately 1.15 Dollars. The price is high because the fruit is imported meaning that no local farmer can meet the market demand or the quality desired by the market. Kiwi is a climbing crop that grows similarly as the grape fruit. In fact kiwi performs well in areas where grapes grow well and follow almost the same crop management strategies as the grapevine. The most common species locally is the fuzzy kiwi fruit scientifically referred to as A.deliciosa that produces an egg shaped fruit with a brown hairy skin.
Kiwi is a temperate fruit that can perform well in temperate zones in Kenya that include Central, Western highlands and central Rift valley among others. It can be propagated either from seed or stem cuttings. Cuttings are the most preferred method because they mature faster. Kiwi can be grown in a wide range of soils, as long as the soil is properly drained. It is a climbing plant and will need support until they are properly established, a trellis system serves better. A suitable site is one that is protected from strong winds and is exposed to enough sunlight. Because of its shallow roots and fast growth, kiwi should be irrigated regularly.
The fruit tree can bear fruit for 12-15 years and some take less than 2 years to start fruiting. For the plant to produce fruit one needs a male and female plant. Kiwi is dioecious; it has male and female reproductive organs on separate plants of the same species. Male plants don’t produce fruits but they pollinate female plants. One male vine is planted for every 8 female vines. It is hard to identify if a plant is either male or female until they start flowering, so one has to grow several plants to increase the probability of having both. For proper fruit set, light pruning and thinning should be done once the fruit tree matures.
Kiwi seedlings are hard to come by in Kenya, the few nurseries that have, sell them from between Ksh 250-1000 per seedling. Farmers should start with a few plants, like 8 and then increase the number gradually from their own saplings. Kiwi farming is viable and is an additional income generation option for farmers. It is a high yielding crop that can be embraced by small-scale farmers who have no large tracts of land. It is not labour intensive and allows room for inter-cropping with plants such as potato, ginger, asparagus, maize and chili.
Seedlings from cuttings are delicate and need proper care for the plant to grow successfully. Exposure to a lot of fertilizer may burn the roots; this is the reason why we prefer using compost manure and less fertilizer. We are monitoring a few kiwi crops planted in containers on trial basis to see how they will perform before we start distributing the seedling to farmers and home gardeners. Despite the challenges associated with fruit farming, we are optimistic about the prospects of returns from kiwi farming. The future is not for us to tell but the few farmers who will strike it right with kiwi will have a different story to tell.
Mulberry is one of the fruits that is greatly overlooked and has not gained much attention in Kenya. Mulberry has the potential of lifting small scale farmers if it is exploited for various commercial valuable products. Mulberry is a deciduous woody perennial that grows fast and has a deep root system. The most predominant species in Kenya is Morus Alba of different varieties that include ex-limuru, ex-embu, s36, kanva 2, ex-thika among others. There is no statistical data on the total area of coverage occupied by mulberry or on any predominant areas that grow mulberry in Kenya. So far we have not come across any farmers who have grown mulberry commercially on large tracts of land; most farmers have grown mulberry as forage in less than an acre piece of land.
Mulberry can be grown under different climatic conditions but prefers tropical zones with temperatures ranging from 24-28 degree Celsius. They need adequate water supply, especially when used for sericulture purposes. Rainfall ranging from 800-2000mm is ideal; irrigation is encouraged areas with less rainfall. Mulberry should be in well ventilated areas with enough sunlight for better growth and leaf quality. Mulberry does well in a wide range of soils but prefers fertile well drained soils with a soil PH of between 6.2-6.8. Farmyard manure evenly spread and properly mixed with the soil can be used when planting. A quarter an acre can accommodate 3556 plants with a spacing of 5 X 2ft. A mulberry plant takes 6-12 months to be well established and pruning is required as the plant grows.
For a very longtime mulberry has been used for sericulture in most parts of the world. In Kenya only a handful of farmers have embraced sericulture. Efforts are being made by the National sericulture station to reverse this trend; on December 10th 2014 they will be hosting farmers free of charge to be enlightened more on sericulture. Silk worm feed only on mulberry leaves making this crop a requirement if sericulture is to be practiced. Silk worm rearing requires a steady source of good quality mulberry leaves for the period they are active. If you are interested in sericulture do attend the open day on December 10th 2014 at the National Sericulture station in Thika (KARI) to learn more. Topics to be addressed include; mulberry seed propagation, care and leaf harvesting, silk worm rearing requirements and silk extraction from the cocoons. Feel free to contact us for more details and directions to the venue; firstname.lastname@example.org
There are many products with medicinal value that can be derived from mulberry leaves and fruits. The leaves are used by some farmers as animal feed especially for cattle and rabbits. The fruits are used for making jam, jelly, fruit sauce, cake, food color, yoghurt, wine and juice. Both the fruit and leaves are dried and packaged for sale. Dried leaves are used to make mulberry green tea and dried fruits are crushed into powder. The fresh fruit has medicinal value and has for a long time been used to prepare syrup and treat sore throat, high fever and depression.
Some of the products that can be made from mulberry
The mulberry fruit tree has tremendous potential due to its many uses; everything from the leaves to the roots can be added value if industrially exploited. The tree can be inter-cropped with other plants and serve as a good companion to grapes or passion fruit, its hard stalks supports climbers. It is also used widely for landscaping, they provide a good view if properly pruned. This single plant, if exploited can give rise to different income generating micro enterprises that will lift living standards and create jobs for the many youths who are unemployed.
Papaya is a common fruit in most parts of the country, yet Kenya is not a leading exporter of this fruit. This is due to the fact that the export market concentrates on processed paw paw products that include dried papaya, marmalade, canned papaya and pulp. Value addition, lack of it, is our greatest undoing as a nation. Papayas fruits are delicious and grow throughout the year. These fruits are eaten alone or in salad without the skin. They are high in potassium, vitamin A and C. Papaya leaves can be used as animal feed and some people cook the leaves as vegetables. The seeds are used by both human and animals to fight worms and parasites.
Pawpaw performs well in most parts of the country; rift valley, eastern, coast, nyanza, western and central. By the end of the first year the papaya trees begin to bear fruit, during the second year it produces substantially. Production then decreases as the tree ages, for commercial purpose its proper to keep the trees for a period of 3-5 years, but they can have a life span of more than 10 years. In a year a tree can give you 30-100 fruits. Prices range from Ksh 20-100 depending on size and variety. In tropical climates , fruit are produced throughout the year.
The tree requires well drained soil of between 6-7 ph. It is very water sensitive and susceptible to stagnant water. It flourishes in the tropics and sub tropics and needs rainfall between 1500-2000mm spread throughout the year. Papaya is fast growing and needs plenty of nutrients to be realized by use of manure and mulch. In dry months they will need irrigation, let them not go for more than a month without water. Proper pest control is required to ensure good quality produce. Papaya trees are very susceptible to wind break thanks to their flat root system and soft woodiness. They are ideal in agro-forestry systems where they are planted with other trees that serve as wind breakers. It can be planted as an intercrop with low growing annual crops such as beans and onion.
There are different varieties of papaya found in Kenya. The major ones are solo, mountain, sunrise and sweet varieties. There are also some improved breeds such as the red royale that give good quality yields produced by JKUAT. Papaya is mostly propagated by seed which produce fruits of different size and shapes. Vegetative propagation of papaya using tissue culture give rise to superior plants that are disease resistant, produce high yields and are easy to maintain and harvest because they trees are short(dwarf).
Home gardeners should embrace papaya for home consumption, it requires less space and maintaining it is easy. One can prepare fresh salad, juice and marmalade for the family using papaya, this can in turn generate into a business that can earn an extra dime. Local farmers can intercrop papaya with various plants ranging from other fruit trees such as mango, banana and low growing annuals that include spinach, capsicum, onions, strawberry among others. Papaya plays a major role in establishing other crops sharing similar requirements in agro forestry systems.
We do partner with corporate entities and other organizations to implement sustainable CSR projects that deal with environment conservation and food security. This project was initiated on 13/06/2014 and supported by Bacardi Kenya. A total of 21, one year old fruit trees were planted that include; loquat, apple, guava, white sapote, strawberry guava, Papaya, Monitor, Pitango, Tamarind, Mulberry, custard apple and straw berry plants. We planted several trees together with Bacardi staff team and several community members, the area chief and his assistant also planted a tree each.
The trees will be maintained and monitored till fruition. Our intention is to enlighten society on the economic, nutrition and environmental benefits of fruit tree farming/planting. The Chief’s office being a public office that hosts many locals and visitors was ideal for such a project. The fruit trees will serve as a learning resource and a catalyst that will compel community members to embrace and venture in fruit farming. There are many fruit trees that perform well In Kenya and have great potential that remains unexploited and we do believe that lack of knowledge and skills greatly contributes to this situation. Projects like this if well supported, managed and replicated in other areas will greatly reverse this trend by imparting basic agronomic and agribusiness skills to interested community members.
We regard our CSR clients as impact investors who expect us to deliver positive social and environment impact alongside financial return, even though they don’t invest directly in our enterprise. Such an engagement allows companies and corporate entities a variety of options to diversify economically through entering different markets and interacting with new customers, suppliers and products. Other than relying on aid and grants, we do think it’s high time for us to apply business thinking to provide solutions to a range of problems, be it social or environmental.
We believe companies do have a lot to gain if they partner with social enterprises as investors rather than donors. The 21st century has plenty of challenges, resources from the government and philanthropy alone, are insufficient to tackle these challenges. Lucky enough the social enterprise and impact investing movement is gaining momentum in Kenya thanks to Strathmore business school and KCA University. These two institutions are separately doing some good work through research and holding stakeholders meetings with the main aim of coming up with solutions that will reduce the bottlenecks faced by social enterprises and impact investors.
Grape is a woody vine that produces clusters of edible berries. They can be eaten raw or can be used to process wine and other products such as jam and grape juice. There are plenty of health benefits in consuming grapes for they are a rich source of Vitamins- A, C, K and minerals such as iron, copper, manganese. Grapes are widely cultivated all over the world due to the fact that they are non-climatic and can thrive in different climatic conditions but they prefer warm to hot temperatures. Grapes are suitable for home gardeners and for small scale or large scale commercial production. In Kenya, grapes can be used to reduce economic and food insecurity because there is a good market within the country. There is ready market throughout the year and new wine companies that use grapes as their main raw material are setting shop in Kenya. Established companies such as East African breweries ltd are thinking of entering the wine market as they seek to diversify. The future of this crop is promising.
A good percentage of the grape consumed in Kenya is imported and mostly sold to the high end market that pays a good price for them- a kilo goes at around 400-500 Ksh. Wine producing companies such as Kenyan wine agencies do import the grapes they use because of the good quality of imported grapes and lack of local supply .Any company prefers getting their core raw materials from within and are only forced to import if they have no other choice. This greatly increases the cost of production and denies such companies a competitive advantage. Some of the companies are aware of this and have developed their own grapevine orchards but the grape produced is still insufficient.
Vegetative propagation of grapes at our nursery
This plant has the potential to create employment and wealth among Kenyan farmers’ especially young farmers who are ready to try something new. Grapes’ growing is still in its formative stage despite the fact that there are grapevine orchards in different parts of Kenya that are more than 20 years old. More farmers and home gardeners should be encouraged to embrace this crop. Farmers can go an extra mile and establish wine making cottage industries that will improve the economic outlook of their locality. There is a lot to be done to ensure farmers are well trained on grape cultivation and value addition to guarantee high quality produce that will rival imported grapes and wine.
Grape prefers deep and well drained soil and can grow in any soil type. They can be propagated through seeds or vegetatively by using cuttings. While planting a spacing of 15-20 cm should be observed. A trellis system should also be implemented to train and support the grape vines as they grow. Alternatively grapes can be planted together with mulberry as a companion plant that will offer the grapes support and distract birds from eating the grape fruit for they will be attracted to the mulberry fruits that will be high above. Birds pose a great challenge once the crop ripens; we prefer using fruit trees such as strawberry guava and mulberry to distract them. Birds will be easily attracted to these fruits and leave the grapes that are well trained and fruits tucked under the leaves. Insect and disease problems can be reduced by planting vines in a sunny location with good air drainage.
Grape seedlings ready for planting
There are different types of grapes each having its own characteristic, advantages and disadvantages. Prospective large scale farmers should visit wineries and inquire on the types of grapes they might be interested to purchase before embracing certain cultivators because demand does differ by variety. Home growers should sample the different varieties; they can be planted along the fence in the homestead and trained well to conceal the fruits when it matures. We have stocked grape seedlings and we are still sourcing for more grape seedlings of different varieties. Pay us a visit and pick a few seedlings for your homestead or farm. We can be contacted via mail: email@example.com for more information.
As we continue to encourage people to embrace fruit farming, we try to highlight some of the fruits that we think have the potential to improve the quality of life by providing necessary nutrients and generating income to home gardeners and small scale farmers. This time round we feature tree tomato, scientific name- Cyphomandra betacea, a semi-woody tree that grows 2-3m high. Also known as Tamarillo, in Swahili it is called Mgogwe. Tree tomato has high levels of iron, fibre, potassium and vitamin A, B6, C, and E. Tree tomato is ideal for home gardeners who don’t have much space in urban areas, one does not need much space to grow a few tree tomato trees. It is fast growing and bears fruit within 18 months, but we have seen some varieties that if well taken care of take a much shorter time to fruit (8-14 months). Tree tomato grows best in areas with enough sunlight and prefers dip, rich well drained soil. They cannot withstand water logging and are intolerant to constant high temperatures.
Tree tomato commands a good price in the market; the current market price is Ksh. 10 for one. The fruit has high yields and is generally pest-resistant. It is a short-lived tree with a lifespan of between 5-12 years. It requires little capital to venture into tree tomato farming and it is not labour intensive. Tree tomato does not tolerate competition from weeds thus requires heavy mulching. Tree tomato can be grown from seeds or cuttings. We do have certified, disease free tree tomato seedlings that we are planning to distribute to our various projects to encourage more people to venture in horticulture. Tree tomato farming is a lucrative venture; one can sell the fruits, propagate seedlings for sell and offer practical training at the same time.
This is right time for us to start growing some of the vegetables, herbs and fruits that we consume. Food prices are escalating, and food safety standards are not adhered to. A recent joint research by the University of Nairobi and Strathmore , University established that most fruits and vegetables sold in Kenya contain harmful pesticides that exceed safe levels. As much as we can’t grow everything we eat, let’s at least try and grow some fruits that are easy to propagate and manage like the tree tomatoes, strawberries, paw paws, Kiwi etc. Companion vegetables and herbs can also be grown beneath or alongside the fruits to control pests and diseases, add nutrients to the soil and act as ground cover. Chillies, garlic, neem and marigold act as good companion plants that can be grown together with tree tomato. This helps reduce the use of pesticides and chemicals.
There is a rising demand of organic farm products, growing your fruit trees organically is the way to go. It is quite a challenge for starters but once you master the art of organic farming everything falls in place. Soil fertility plays a crucial role in crop production and organic farming ensures nutrients are returned to the soil. The use of chemical fertilizer is not sustainable in the long run; they act as temporary remedies that end up depleting our soils. If you have to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides, use them to the minimum. Organic farming is the best option for fruit farmers because organic products command a good price both in local and export markets.